Tag Archives: Microsoft

Pan: A Useful NewsReader for Linux


PAN is a newsreader that has been around for ages. It allows you to sift through the massive clutter that Usenet has become through its really fast interface loaded with tons of features!

It’s development died off way back in 2012, but recently it’s development has picked right back up again. Not only is this product feature rich and open source, but it’s written purely in C++ which makes it incredibly light weight (thus very, very fast). Some of the subtle product enhancements this product has seen in the past few months make it worthy to be in the spot light again.

So What Can It Do?

  • Header Caching: Tell it the group(s) you want and how much of it you want to see and it will download the headers it retrieves to a local cache file. This is awesome because now you can sift through this content offline.
    Cache Headers
    Cache Headers
  • Header Scoring: You can flag key aspects of articles with a score. By default every header retrieved has a score of zero (0) unless you start dabbling in this area.

    Anything that scores less than (or equal to) -9999 can be configured to not list itself at all. Some well set scores can greatly clean up your ability to locate content in groups.

    You can score content higher and/or lower based on the posts author, subject, size, age, etc. You can even apply scoring through regular expressions too!

    Scoring is very powerful when used properly! I’ll talk about it again a bit later in this blog once you’ve gotten set up. But if we were to apply scoring to the previous screenshot (above), it might look like this (all garbage cleaned up and content prioritized with color coding too):

    Header Scoring
    Header Scoring
  • Multiple Server Support: Got a block account? No problem, you can add it as a secondary server and only pull from it if the Primary one is unavailable.
  • NZB-File Support: The treasure maps of Usenet can be loaded into Pan too and downloaded through it. True automation of these come through systems like NZBGet and SABnzbd, but it’s still worth knowing that not only is this a newsreader, but it can pass as a downloader as well!
  • Concurrent Connections: Like any great browser/downloader of any system; files are retrieve concurrently. This means that you can just keep browsing and tagging content of interest seamlessly without interruptions.
  • Header Compression Support: One of the new enhancements surfaced with the new development of this project. This makes a world of difference when retrieving hundreds of thousands of headers from a Usenet group. Enabling this feature along (if your Usenet provider supports it) will greatly reduce wait times!

Pan’s Disabled Features

The features page on PANs website explains about a parent company (called ChimPanXi) that tries to sell this free product with added functionality. I guess the deal they have with the developers is to just disable a few features so that they can be re-enabled them the paid version (purely speculation)?

But since the (Pan) code is open source, the options are right there in front of us but just disabled. Quite honestly… of all this disabled functionality, only one is truly worth pointing out: Pan restricts you to just 4 allowable concurrent connections to your Usenet provider at a time. Here is a small patch I created which increases this number to 99. The build I provide in this blog already has this patch applied. Here are the rest of the missing features (with some of my comments as well); maybe some might see value in the others?

Pans Missing Features
Pans Missing Features

The Goods

For those hooked up to my repository are already set, just type the following:

# install the new version of Pan
yum install pan --enablerepo=nuxref

You can also reference this table too for direct links:

Package Download Description
pan el7.rpm, fc22.rpm, fc23.rpm, fc24.rpm, fc25.rpm The Newsreader: This is the program that this blog focuses on.

Note: The source rpm can be obtained here which builds everything you see in the table above. It’s not required for the application to run, but might be useful for developers or those who want to inspect how I put the package together.

It’s also worth noting (again) that this build includes a small patch to increase the maximum allowable number of concurrent connections from 4 to 99.

Securing Your Connection

There is very little security built into Pan from a connection point of view. What little security is (normally) in place is built using GnuTLS. GnuTLS has a history of not keeping up with the security exploits and vulnerabilities that surface with encryption libraries. It doesn’t make it unsafe; it just doesn’t make it as reliable as it’s competition (OpenSSL and Crypto). For this reason the packages I provide are intentionally not built against it (GnuTLS).

It’s really not a problem at the end of the day because there are other ways of securing this connection (properly). The way I use (and recommend) is through Stunnel.

Stunnel allows you to take an unencrypted input (from Pan) and connect it to a secure connected one (at your Usenet provider). The best thing about stunnel is that it links to your (OpenSSL) shared system libraries libssl.so and libcrypto.so which are actively maintained and patched! Basically what I’m saying is by attaching Pan to Stunnel: you get the feature rich usage of Pan and the ongoing (reliable) security of OpenSSL.

The following will get you set up with stunnel; you’ll want to be root before running the command below:

# Install stunnel (if it's not installed already)
# you'll need to be connected to either EPEL or NuxRef for this
# to work:
yum install stunnel

You can also reference this table too for direct links:

Package Download Description
stunnel el7.rpm, fc22.rpm, fc23.rpm, fc24.rpm, fc25.rpm Secure Tunnel: for data encryption.

Note: This RPM is not required by PAN to run correctly. It does however offer you a safer and more secure method of encrypting your communication to (and from) your NNTP Server.
# You must have root permissions when setting up
# stunnel

# Create relay bound to local server only (semi-colons are for
# comments):
cat << _EOF > /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf
; Use it for client mode
; This is the pass through mode you need to encrypted
; your NNTP traffic:
client = yes
; --- IN ---
; local port to listen on (on this PC)
; You will configure PAN to connect here:
accept =

; --- OUT ---
; The Remote Usenet Server's (encrypted) connection to use:
; In this example, I'm just pointing to Astraweb, but you
; can provide any Usenet server you wish here. Just be sure
; to point it to their secure transport point!
connect = ssl.astraweb.com:563

# This line below is useless, but it allows you revisit this blog
# entry and continue and copy and paste these instructions at a later
# time. The line removes any previous entries set to prevent the
# creation of duplicate entries  in your startup file at another time
# It's harmless to run at any point:
sed -i -e '/bin\/stunnel/d' /etc/rc.d/rc.local

# Configure stunnel to start after each boot
echo "# Start /usr/bin/stunnel on boot each time:" >> /etc/rc.d/rc.local
echo "/usr/bin/stunnel" >> /etc/rc.d/rc.local

# By default stunnel is configured to read 
# it's configuration from /etc/stunnel/stunnel.conf
# on startup:

The next step is to update your PAN server configuration to point to your local server (localhost or instead of the remote one you’re accessing. Make sure to set the port to 119 too like so:

Stunnel Pan Configuration
Stunnel Pan Configuration

You’ll provide the same username and password you would have otherwise provided to your Usenet provider.

The end result is a secure connection between you and your Usenet provider like so:
Pan Setup With Stunnel


Scoring articles can greatly ease your life when looking through all of the headers in front of you; it’s great for:

  • Eliminating SPAM
  • Filtering out potential malicious content (such as Trojans and Viruses)
  • Increasing the visibility of items of interest
  • Locating Authors of interest with ease

All scores can be optionally associated with a time limit too. When the limit expires, so does the score. This is useful when you only want to temporarily filter content. Otherwise the permanent scores will make up most of your configuration. To add a score, simply click Articles > Add a Scoring Rule…

Add Scoring Rule
Add a Scoring Rule

Here is an example of a rule you might add; this one greatly reduces the score of all entries that have potentially dangerous file extensions in the subject line:

Block Potentially Malicious Content
Block Potentially Malicious Content

Pan’s built in filter field allows you to sift through all of the articles you found with keywords. Pairing this functionality with the scoring one really shows off the power of Pan.

All created scores are kept in ~/.pan2/Scores so don’t worry if you mess one up. You can just as easily open this file and fix it. Any manual changes to this file will however require you to exit out of Pan (if it’s open) and restart it.

Here is just a few entries of what you might have in your Score file:

% Greatly reduce score of potentially malicious content
Score:: -9999
Subject: .*\.(exe|bat|vbs|cpl|msi|scr|vb(script)?|ws(f|h))[^A-Za-z0-9].*

% Moderately increase the score of compressed content
Score:: 2500
Subject: .*\.(z(ip|[0-9]{2})|r(ar|[0-9]{2})|7z|iso)[^A-Za-z0-9]([0-9]{3}[^A-Za-z0-9])?.*

% Very slightly decrease the content of PAR content
% This allows it to not quite have the same spot light as
% the item it matches up against. If it were a compressed file
% it would already have +2500 from the previous score entry
% identified above.  These will just sit at +2400 instead.
Score:: -100
Subject: .*(\.vol[0-9]+\+[0-9]+)?\.(par2|sfv)[^A-Za-z0-9].*

% Very slightly increase the score of NZB-Files
Score:: 250
Subject: .*\.(nzb)[^A-Za-z0-9].*

% Mildly drop the score of cross-posted content
Score:: -750
Xref: (.*:){2} % cross-posted to 2 or more groups 

Wrapping It Up

I’m certainly not asking anyone to change from their existing system if it works for them. What I am pointing out though is that Pan is completely free, it’s open source and the features it offers are comparable (if not better) than all of it’s competition. Although it works great on Linux, it also works on many other platforms as well such as Microsoft and Apple.

It might not have a beautiful interface, but it wasn’t built to fill your systems memory with bloated eye candy. It was built to be fast and effective… and truly, it really is.

The newer versions coming out are really great! If you haven’t given it a try since it’s dated ones, you really should! If you’re interested in seeing how Usenet is structured, than this is also a great tool to learn with. If you run an indexer (such as newznab or the many forks of it) you can practice your regular expressions (regexs) using Pan. For an Indexer Admin, this tool is especially great in debugging your regexs!


This blog took me a very long time to put together and test! The repository hosting alone accommodates all my blog entries up to this date. All of the custom packaging described here was done by me personally. I took the open source available to me and rebuilt it to make it an easier solution and decided to share it. If you like what you see and wish to copy and paste this HOWTO, please reference back to this blog post at the very least. It’s really all I ask.


Mono 3.x Packages for CentOS 6


Mono allows us to run Windows Applications in our Linux environment. It is an open source implementation of Microsoft’s .NET Framework. The problem is, CentOS (and Red Hat) 6.x ship with Mono v2.4 which is a little outdated. You can’t take advantage of the newer apps .NET developers are writing. In fact, you can’t run anything that requires a newer version of v3.5 of the .NET runtime libraries.

In addition to that, Mono v3.4 grants your CentOS system more support for .NET applications that weren’t otherwise available for you in v2.4.

Compatibility Mono v2.4 Mono v3.4
.NET 1.0 Yes No (dropped support)
.NET 2.0 Yes Yes
C# 3.0 Yes Yes
ASP.NET 2.0 Yes Yes
.NET 3.5 Partial Yes
.NET 4.0 No Yes
.NET 4.5 No Yes
C# 4.0 No Yes
ASP.NET 4.0 No Yes
C# 5.0 No Yes

What’s so special about the repackaging you did?

Well first of all… it’s actually an RPM package. It doesn’t require you to haul in a ton of development libraries and compile it from scratch. Another point is that Mono v2.4 (shipped with CentOS & Red Hat 6) had many patches applied to it. These patches forced Mono to conform to the common directory structure used natively by our Operating System. It took me several hours to recreate all of these patches forcing Mono v3.4 to comply with the same standards.

Finally (and at the time of writing this blog), this is the first package of Mono v3.4 that I’ve found that can be installed via an RPM and not require you to recompile everything yourself. Hence you don’t even need to haul in any development libraries at all. Mono will just work as is. Since my repackaging was based off of the original, I tried to keep all of the external rpm packages the same. That said, I did get a little confused with all of the new packages and binary tools that ship with Mono v3.x. Since I’m not a Microsoft Developer, I tried to sort these new packages accordingly as best as I could. Please feel free to let me know how I can improve this package if you notice anything I’ve done wrong.

Just hand over all your work already!

Absolutely, here they are:

Binary Packages:

Note: Mono (v3) was a bit picky about it’s SQLite version it referenced. I had to update it’s package to a slightly newer version as well for everything to play nicely. Only if you intend to haul in the mono-data-sqlite-*.rpm package, will you be required to haul in this newer version. I’ve already provided this on my repository, but for the sceptics who want to build it themselves, I’ll include those instructions too.

Source Packages:

Debug Info Packages

Alternatively, you can get it from my repository too (this is the best and easiest way). The below instructions assume you’ve set yourself up.

# Make sure you're hooked up with my repository for this to
# work: http://nuxref.com/nuxref-repository/
# Install Mono
yum install -y 
# Install additional packages too if you wish (depending on your
# needs.
yum install -y 

I’ll Never Trust Your Stuff; Let Me Do It Myself

Sure, First you’re going to need to fetch all the patches I had to create (plus the old ones carried forth from Mono v2.4:

You can additionally view the RPM SPEC file I created here.

First prepare our development environment with mock if you haven’t already:

# Install 'mock' into your environment if you don't have it already
# This step will require you to be the superuser (root) in your native
# environment.
yum install -y mock

# Grant your normal every day user account access to the mock group
# This step will also require you to be the root user.
usermod -a -G mock YourNonRootUsername
# Download the official mono packages from their official
# hosting site:
wget http://origin-download.mono-project.com/sources/mono/mono-3.4.0.tar.bz2

# Download all of the building blocks you'll need
wget --output-document=mono.spec https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AAAiqD2KjHhakweKY_mkLLPba/20140713/mono/mono.spec?dl=1
wget --output-document=monodir.c https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AABZHv5NeWFICyAAAw--eiJoa/20140713/mono/monodir.c?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono.snk https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AADoY6UvThpcQbUHhs7XUecsa/20140713/mono/mono.snk?dl=1
wget --output-document=lc https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AACkja0kNxmO1ytHOIw523HTa/20140713/mono/lc?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-3.4-ppc-threading.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AAAKrjdqRR826osJjbqZIu5la/20140713/mono/mono-3.4-ppc-threading.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-1.2.3-use-monodir.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AABHvxieGDqU8eDB24ghS_Dua/20140713/mono/mono-1.2.3-use-monodir.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-2.2-uselibdir.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AABSjbMfIRj5JB7HKWydQVpja/20140713/mono/mono-2.2-uselibdir.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-2.0-monoservice.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AADsL0DBfI0VixRAw6uI0Vkpa/20140713/mono/mono-2.0-monoservice.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-3.4-libgdiplusconfig.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AAAHvISVzxIPq9xCmw2m2tcPa/20140713/mono/mono-3.4-libgdiplusconfig.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-3.4-libdir.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AACHrlv_iSp36jhSeOn4ki0fa/20140713/mono/mono-3.4-libdir.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-3.4-POSIX_ARG_MAX.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AADSN5WhjyqTQptMoWthDnYHa/20140713/mono/mono-3.4-POSIX_ARG_MAX.patch?dl=1
wget --output-document=mono-3.4.xamarin.BZ18690.patch https://www.dropbox.com/sh/9dt7klam6ex1kpp/AAAwWsEKkOlnzYZCshp29wuwa/20140713/mono/mono-3.4.xamarin.BZ18690.patch?dl=1

# Initialize our Environment
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --init

# Dependencies
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --install libpng-devel libjpeg-devel ligiflib-devel  
   lilibtiff-devel  lilibexif-devel  lilibX11-devel  lifontconfig-devel  
   ligettext  limake  ligcc-c++ libison liglib2-devel lipkgconfig 
   lilibicu-devel lilibgdiplus-devel  lizlib-devel li automake libtool 
   gettext-devel mono-core gcc-c++ mediainfo gettext 
   giflib-devel libtiff-devel libexif-devel libX11-devel fontconfig-devel 
   bison glib2-devel libicu-devel libgdiplus-devel mysql-devel 
   postgresql-devel sqlite-devel

# Copy our packages into our environment
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyin mono.spec /builddir/build/SPECS
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyin 

# Shell into our environment
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --shell

# Change to our build directory
cd builddir/build

# Enable Bootstrapping for the first time
# mono actually requires 'mono' (itself) to build. Weird Right?
# But still necessary! For this reason I prepared an easier
# way of enabling bootstrapping for your first build.
# Once you install the binaries created from your first build
# we can rebuild the package again (but this time without
# bootstrapping). The purpose of this is to ensure the mono
# binaries and packages we created are equivalent to the
# the bootstrapped content.
# So... on with the bootstrapping; Note: this will take
# 20 to 30 minutes depending on how fast your system is.
rpmbuild -ba --define "_with_bootstrap=1" SPECS/mono.spec

# Now that we've created mono from a bootstrap, we can
# install the package back into our virtual environment
# and rebuild it again. But this time we rebuild it
# without the bootstrap reference.
rpm -Uhi RPMS/mono-core-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm RPMS/mono-devel-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm
# Now rebuild the whole thing all over again to confirm
# your build was good; Note: This will take another 20 to 30 
# minutes again...
rpmbuild -ba SPECS/mono.spec

# we're now done with our mock environment for now; Press Ctrl-D to
# exit or simply type exit on the command line of our virtual
# environment

# We'll return to the directory we were previously in.  We can copy
# out the packages we just built at this point.Ignore the warning
# about SELinux if you get one. It doesn't impact our goals at this
# moment.
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/SRPMS/mono-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.src.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-devel-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/monodoc-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/monodoc-devel-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-extras-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-locale-extras-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-nunit-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-nunit-devel-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-reactive-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-wcf-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-web-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-web-devel-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-winforms-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .
# The debuginfo package will only exist if you successfully rebuilt
# everything without the bootstrap set
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/mono-debuginfo-3.4.0-1.el6.nuxref.x86_64.rpm .

Upgrading SQLite

For me, I just visited pkgs.org and downloaded the fedora 20 (source -src.rpm) release of SQLite. Then I extracted it’s contents as follows:

# I can't promise this link will work, as this package is always
# evolving, but if you do the search above, you'll get the idea
wget http://dl.fedoraproject.org/pub/fedora/linux/releases/20/Everything/source/SRPMS/s/sqlite-3.8.1-2.fc20.src.rpm

# Alternatively, you can download the source rpm package I'm
# already hosting:
wget http://repo.nuxref.com/centos/6/en/source/custom/sqlite-3.8.1-2.el6.src.rpm

# Then extracted it using this neat technique:
rpm2cpio sqlite-*.src.rpm | cpio -idmv

# Initialize our Environment
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --init

# Dependencies
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --install ncurses-devel 
    readline-devel glibc-devel autoconf /usr/bin/tclsh 

# You'll already have the block you need as nothing is
# changed with this package. We're just using it as is
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyin sqlite-*.zip /builddir/build/SOURCES
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyin *.patch /builddir/build/SOURCES
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyin sqlite.spec /builddir/build/SPECS

# Shell into our environment
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --shell
# Change to our build directory
cd builddir/build

# Build our packages (process doesn't take long ~2 min)
rpmbuild -ba SPECS/sqlite.spec

# we're now done with our mock environment for now; Press Ctrl-D to
# exit or simply type exit on the command line of our virtual
# environment

# We'll return to the directory we were previously in.  We can copy
# out the packages we just built at this point. Ignore the warning
# about SELinux if you get one. It doesn't impact our goals at this
# moment.
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/SRPMS/sqlite-3.8.1-2.el6.src.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/sqlite-3.8.1-2.el6.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/sqlite-devel-3.8.1-2.el6.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/sqlite-doc-3.8.1-2.el6.noarch.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/lemon-3.8.1-2.el6.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/sqlite-tcl-3.8.1-2.el6.x86_64.rpm .
mock -v -r epel-6-x86_64 --copyout 
   /builddir/build/RPMS/sqlite-debuginfo-3.8.1-2.el6.x86_64.rpm .


This blog took me a very (,very) long time to put together and test! The repository hosting alone now accommodates all my blog entries up to this date. If you like what you see and wish to copy and paste this HOWTO, please reference back to this blog post at the very least. It’s really all I ask.

I’ve tried hard to make this a complete working solution out of the box. Please feel free to email me or post comments below with any suggestions you have so I can ensure this blog is as complete as possible! Positive feedback is always welcome too!


This blog makes use of my own repository I loosely maintain. If you’d like me to continue to monitor and apply updates as well as hosting the repository for long terms, please consider donating or offering a mirror server to help me out! This would would be greatly appreciated!


The majority of my efforts came from the following sites:

KeePassX – A Password Manager and Why You Need One


I haven’t posted in a while and I figured I was due. I usually blog specifically for Linux users, but this really applies to anyone on any operating system (Apple, Microsoft, Android, etc).

I want to encourage the use of a password manager to anyone not already using one. There are a lot of them out there, but I’m specifically interested in focusing the attention on KeePassX. There are a number of reasons why and I’ll eventually get to most of them. But for starters KeePassX is completely free (GPLv2) and as I mentioned above, it works on just about every platform!

It’s sole purpose in life is to remember passwords for you so you don’t have to. It’s used to prevent you from using the same 1-3 passwords you’re using today for everything. Instead of using your birthday, engagement and/or pets name, you’ll use passwords like: JP83bW93wwrJsZ2x6tQy3aD6W or SLJUhoQWPBRtwTwmzsCxWXqOV. Again, I emphasis that the password manager does all the memorizing for you. Not only that, but it’ll easily generate you these passwords too.

KeePassX Interface
KeePassX Interface
Now before you roll your eyes and decide you don’t need such a thing, just here me out. Give me a chance to sell you the reasons why you seriously need to consider this. I’ll attempt to do this with respect to The 5 Stages of Loss and Grief. 🙂

Stage 1: Denial

What’s the point of a password manager? I never needed one before!
A password manager is kind of like social media was to us back in February of 2004. The ideology is the same: “You didn’t know you needed it until it was shown to you”. So trust me when I tell you that you need one now. The thing is, the internet is filled with people whose sole intent is to gain access to your identity and exploit it for their own personal gain. The passwords we’ve all used up to this date are too simple; I know this because we’ve all remembered/memorized them. Even the complicated ones we confidently memorized are no good.

Just Saying...
Food for Thought

Most of us just acknowledge there is risk, but we do nothing about it. We belive that if no one has figured out our password yet, they never will. Well the scary thing is: some of them might know our password(s) already. But these people don’t want to make that evident to us. Don’t expect someone to advertise themselves once they’ve gained access to something we had protected. Instead, you’re only going to find out once the damage has been done.

Stage 2: Anger

Why would I put all my passwords in one file? Something just sounds wrong with that statement.
You would do it for the same reason you trust a bank’s security with your money. The same reason you trust your wallet or purse with your personal identity. The same reason you go to work and secure all your belongings and pets behind in your home. We put all of our eggs into one basket every day, but we’re all smart about it. We all put trust in the decision that our belongings will remain in tact until we return to it. KeePassX works exactly the same way.

Both a Password and a Key File can be used to keep your password database safe.
Both a Password and a Key File can be used keep your password database safe.
The passwords that reside in your KeePassX database are encrypted, so no one will gain access to it unless you allow it to happen. The encryption means the password database is completely useless to anyone who has it without the keys required to access it. You can even go as far as to lock it using a keyfile (KeePassX will generate for you) as well as a password.

There is no question that if a hacker gains access to your password database and has all the keys he/she needs to unlock it, then you’ve defeated it’s purpose. Your passwords are only as secure as the conscious effort you take to keep them that way. If you keep the keys to your house under the welcome mat, or your car keys in the vehicle they pair with, it’s just a matter of time before you suffer a theft in that regard too.

Stage 3: Bargaining

Can’t I just change the passwords after I read about the compromising?
The answer is No and here is why:
People are attempting to exploit us ever day through phishing, viruses, spyware, false advertising, and even through everyday tasks we didn’t even know we were a victim of. Take Sony and eBay for example. Both are very reputable companies with an entire team of security experts working with them every day, yet they still fell prey when their systems were compromised by a hacker. As a result, it’s the clients and customers that become the victims too (all of us). If you used the same password on these sites as you do everywhere else, then you’re already at risk for identity theft. The point is, sh*t happens and sometimes it’s just out of our control.

We can’t expect every organization to be like eBay and Sony either. Not all of them will alert their customers of the threat they faced or the security breach they sustained. The few that do go public may have been exploited long before they did. Hence, our personal information was at risk last week when they told us today. There are even some companies who don’t want to admit to any privacy invasions to protect their own reputation. Then there are the companies that might not even know they’ve already been compromised. So if they don’t tell us; how will we ever know?

Therefore, consider taking the extra time to change every password on every site you visit once you get KeePassX installed.

Stage 4: Depression

I don’t want to change my password everywhere.
I don’t want the burden of a another application just to manage my passwords.
I was stuck at this stage for a while. It takes a while to change passwords everywhere. But after it’s done, you have to remember that this program does absolutely everything in its power to make your life easy from this point on. You only need to add everything once; so the burden doesn’t linger.

How can such complicated password make my life easier?

Ctrl+B and Ctrl+C are all you ever need to use once KeePassX is setup.
Ctrl+B and Ctrl+C are all you ever need to use once KeePassX is setup.
Your life ‘will’ be simpler with KeePassX because your every day tools are now accessible by just a few keystrokes:

  1. Press ctrl-b in Password Manager: Copy the username into the clipboard
  2. Press ctrl-v in Web Browser or App: Paste the username (into the username field)
  3. Press ctrl-c in Password Manager: Copy the password into the clipboard
  4. Press ctrl-v in Web Browser or App: Paste the password (into the password field)

That’s it; don’t worry about the password (you just copied) being left in the clipboard. KeePassX looks after clearing the clipboard after a few idle seconds elapse that you configure (the default is 20 seconds). The point of me explaining this is: instead of memorizing your secret passwords you use everywhere, you only need to remember the 4 key combinations identified above. The same 4 keystrokes are used for all sites/apps you ever use/visit from this point forward. Not to mention that each password is a unique from the other and unguessable by any hacker. I can’t stress enough that the effort level decreases with a password manager. At the same time your online privacy is more secure than ever.

Stage 5: Acceptance

What about my Phone? What about my other computer? Can access my password file on other systems?
Yes! This is one of the most amazing features of KeePassX! People even place their password file on locations such as DropBox or their Google Drive so they can access it between the systems. It’s compatible with Microsoft Windows, Mac OS (including Apple iOS), Android, and Linux (of course!).

So Where Do I Get It?

Microsoft Windows and Mac OS users can just download it directly from the download area at the official KeePassX website here.

If you’re using an Android device then you can find it here on the Google Play Store.

If you’re using an Apple device then you can find it here on the iTunes Store.

Linux users can download it from pkgs.org. It’s also available from the EPEL Repositories.

For the CentOS and/or Red Hat users: if for whatever reason the links above become unavailable or you want a fast approach: KeePassX can be retrieved from the repository I’m hosting.

Install KeePassX in CentOS and/or Red Hat 6 :

# Make sure you hook up with my repository first:
# Visit : https://nuxref.com/nuxref-repository/

# Install our required products
yum install -y --enablerepo=nuxref keepassx
# You're Done!

KeepassX Tips

KeePassX Password Generator
KeePassX Password Generator will keep your passwords diverse and complicated.
  • For obvious reasons, password protect your password database. This is the one password you ‘will’ need to remember. So I encourage you to use a new original one, but don’t forget it!
  • Consider using a keyfile as well as the password for securing your password database. The nice thing about the keyfile is you can move it with you; keep it on a usb drive that is kept with you or in another location. This way if someone ever did get a hold of your password database, they can’t do anything without the key file even if they know your password.
  • Configure KeyPassX to lock itself after it’s been idle or minimized. By default it won’t, but it’s a simple option that will allow you to walk away from your desk and know that no one is snooping where they shouldn’t be.
  • Log onto your remote sites and consider changing your passwords every now and then. Even if it’s only once a year. Just changing your passwords annually is still better than never changing them at all! You can optionally configure KeePassX to remind you to change your passwords after they get to a certain age. Just using the built in password generator will greatly simplify your life and keep your passwords complex.

Speaking of Passwords…

Consider that your neighbors (or even someone you don’t know) could be using your wireless network while you’re at work. They could be using it even when your around. Have you been connecting to your wireless router lately to see if you can account for everyone connected to it? Now would be a good time to change this password too!

Pay attention to the sites you use and make sure they use some form of login encryption. For example, logging into a website that isn’t secure means anyone can easily extract your username password combination without your knowledge.

Privacy Compromised

Just do a Google search for +breach +password +hacked to get an idea of how many companies are getting hacked constantly and how easy it is for someone to figure out your password and re-use it elsewhere.

Final Notes
Sure, Password Managers aren’t for everyone; don’t worry, I get that. But if you truly want to prepare yourself and prevent having to deal with unnecessary online fraud, or identity theft… If you truly wasn’t to avoid venturing through The 5 Stages of Loss and Grief which follows these awful crimes, then you should consider protecting yourself now. Take the plunge and get a password manager and diversify your passwords.

It’s better to be safe than sorry.


If you like what you see and wish to copy and paste this HOWTO, please reference back to this blog post at the very least. It’s really all I ask.


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